Understanding the origin, evolution, and maintenance of the extraordinary tropical biodiversity and ecosystems, continues to be a big challenge for tropical biology. Furthermore, anthropogenic effects on tropical ecosystems, and the human factors (societal, cultural, political, and economical) acting as drivers of such effects, add an enormous complexity to the urgent task of conserving, restoring, use and planning tropical ecosystems, their services and resources, within a sustainability framework. Based on the mission, objectives and principles of the ATBC, the meeting in Merida will pursue key research topics promoting the link between the ecological and social dimensions for the conservation of tropical biodiversity. The meeting will cover a wide array of basic and applied research topics on tropical biology and conservation, including: structure, dynamics and functioning of tropical ecosystems, anthropogenic effects on tropical biodiversity and ecosystems, and socio-cultural-economical drivers of such effects. The meeting will review and promote the current vision of ATBC.