Bahía de la Habana
From: Alcolado, Claro-Madruga and Estrada, 2000; Brittanica, 2004; C. Agular et al, 2003
The Havana Bay is located in the city of La Habana in the province of La Havana. It is a deep-sea bay with a sheltered harbor, which has contributed to the economic development of the city since Spanish colonial times in the early 16th century.
Havana Bay is considered to have highly organic and chemical polluted waters, and it has affected nearby areas such as the Almendares and Quibú Rivers, as well as the underwater sewage outfall point located east of Havana Bay entrance (Playa El Chivo). That nutrient enrichment produces a great proliferation of fleshy and filamentous algae in the fringing reefs located near Havana Bay, Río Quibú, Playa El Chivo (Habana City) and near the entrance of Mariel Bay (at the North-Western end of Havana Province).
A narrow shelf with rocky and sandy bottoms allows for the growth of these reefs and various fish communities. The main invertebrate groups in fringing reef areas are sponges (Niphates sp., Holopsama welggi, Callispongia vaginalis), gorgonians (Plexaura flexuosa, Eunicea spp.), and scleractinian corals (Siderastrea radians, Porites astreoides). These communities show a decreased abundance and gradient of responses near Havana Harbor.