Giammona, C. P. 1978. Octocorals in the Gulf of Mexico—their taxonomy and distribution with remarks on their paleontology [dissertation]. Texas A&M University. 212 pp., 21 pls.
New records for GMx from off Louisiana and off Panama City, Florida: USNM 89113–89115.
Cairns, S. D. and F. M. Bayer. 2009. Octocorallia (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 321–331 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas.
Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies. 2016. GulfBase: Resource Database for Gulf of Mexico Research, Education, and Management. Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi. World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.gulfbase.org, [Today's Date].