Haddock, S. D. H., and J. F. Case. 1999. Bioluminescence spectra of shallow and deep-sea gelatinous zooplankton: ctenophores, medusae and siphonophores. Marine Biology 133: 571–582.
van der Land, J. 2001. Ctenophora. Pp. 122–123 in M. J. Costello et al., eds. European Register of Marine Species: A Check-list of the Marine Species in Europe and a Bibliography of Guides to Their Identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, Vol. 50. Muséum national d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.
Wrobel, D., and C. E. Mills. 2003. Pacific Coast Pelagic Invertebrates—A Guide to the Common Gelatinous Animals. Sea Challengers and the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California, Second printing with revisions from the 1998 edition. Pp. 8, 58–69, 100.
Widder, E., and T. Frank, 1995, personal communication. Blue-water dives in the Johnson Sea-Link II, 27°05.269’N, 085°03.890’W to 26°31.613’N, 084°50.620’W.
Moss, A. G. 2009. Ctenophora of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 403–411 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas.
Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies. 2016. GulfBase: Resource Database for Gulf of Mexico Research, Education, and Management. Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi. World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.gulfbase.org, 10-15-2019.