Borror, A. C. 1962. Ciliate Protozoa of the Gulf of Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean 12: 333–349.
Powers, P. B. 1935. Studies on the ciliates of sea urchins, a general survey of the infestations occurring in Tortugas echinoids. Papers of the Tortugas Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington 29: 293–326.
Coats, D. W. and J. C. Clamp. 2009. Ciliated Protists (Ciliophora) of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 57–79 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas.
Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies. 2016. GulfBase: Resource Database for Gulf of Mexico Research, Education, and Management. Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi. World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.gulfbase.org, [Today's Date].