Phelan, T. 1970. A field guide to cidaroid echinoids of the northwestern Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 40: 1–67.
Serafy, D. K., and F. J. Fell. 1985. Marine flora and fauna of the northeastern United States. Echinodermata: Echinoidea. NOAA Technical Report National Marine Fisheries Service 33: 1–27.
New record for GMx. ID: DLP; 30 Apr 1884, 2 miles NW of Havana Light, Cuba, Albatross; USNM 7169, 1 specimen.
Pawson, D. L., D. J. Vance, C. G. Messing, F. A. Solis-Marin, and C. L. Mah. 2009. Echinodermata of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 1177–1204 in Felder, D.L. and D.K. Camp (eds.), Gulf of Mexico–Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas.
Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies. 2016. GulfBase: Resource Database for Gulf of Mexico Research, Education, and Management. Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi. World Wide Web electronic publication. http://www.gulfbase.org, 05-29-2020.